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Leishmania infections: Molecular targets and diagnosis

Leishmania infections: Molecular targets and diagnosis
Progress in the diagnosis of leishmaniases depends on the development of effective methods and the discovery of suitable biomarkers. We propose firstly an update classification of Leishmania species and their synonymies. We demonstrate a global map highlighting the geography of known endemic Leishmania species pathogenic to humans. We summarize a complete list of techniques currently in use and discuss their advantages and limitations. The available data highlights the benefits of molecular markers in terms of their sensitivity and specificity to quantify variation from the subgeneric level to species complexes, (sub) species within complexes, and individual populations and infection foci. Each DNA-based detection method is supplied with a comprehensive description of markers and primers and proposal for a classification based on the role of each target and primer in the detection, identification and quantification of leishmaniasis infection. We outline a genome-wide map of genes informative for diagnosis that have been used for Leishmania genotyping. Furthermore, we propose a classification method based on the suitability of well-studied molecular markers for typing the 21 known Leishmania species pathogenic to humans. This can be applied to newly discovered species and to hybrid strains originating from inter-species crosses. Developing more effective and sensitive diagnostic methods and biomarkers is vital for enhancing Leishmania infection control programs.
Publication type:
Journal article
Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Document status:
Open access
Molecular markers; Diagnostic methods; Hybrid strains; Sympatric species; Genome-wide map
Akhoundi, M., Downing, T., Votýpka, J., Kuhls, K., Lukeš, J., Cannet, A., et al. (2017). Leishmania infections: Molecular targets and diagnosis Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 57, 1-29.
    author           = {Akhoundi, Mohammad and Downing, Tim and Votýpka, Jan and Kuhls, Katrin and Lukeš, Julius and Cannet, Arnaud and Ravel, Christophe and Marty, Pierre and Delaunay, Pascal and Kasbari, Mohamed and Granouillac, Bruno and Gradoni, Luigi and Sereno, Denis},
    title            = {Leishmania infections: Molecular targets and diagnosis},
    journal          = {Molecular Aspects of Medicine},
    year             = {2017},
    volume           = {57},
    pages            = {1-29},
    publisher        = {Elsevier},
    doi              = {10.1016/j.mam.2016.11.012},

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