Limits of Life and the Habitability of Mars: The ESA Space Experiment BIOMEX on the ISS

Limits of Life and the Habitability of Mars: The ESA Space Experiment BIOMEX on the ISS
BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) is an ESA/Roscosmos space exposure experiment housed within the exposure facility EXPOSE-R2 outside the Zvezda module on the International Space Station (ISS). The design of the multiuser facility supports—among others—the BIOMEX investigations into the stability and level of degradation of space-exposed biosignatures such as pigments, secondary metabolites, and cell surfaces in contact with a terrestrial and Mars analog mineral environment. In parallel, analysis on the viability of the investigated organisms has provided relevant data for evaluation of the habitability of Mars, for the limits of life, and for the likelihood of an interplanetary transfer of life (theory of lithopanspermia). In this project, lichens, archaea, bacteria, cyanobacteria, snow/permafrost algae, meristematic black fungi, and bryophytes from alpine and polar habitats were embedded, grown, and cultured on a mixture of martian and lunar regolith analogs or other terrestrial minerals. The organisms and regolith analogs and terrestrial mineral mixtures were then exposed to space and to simulated Mars-like conditions by way of the EXPOSE-R2 facility. In this special issue, we present the first set of data obtained in reference to our investigation into the habitability of Mars and limits of life. This project was initiated and implemented by the BIOMEX group, an international and interdisciplinary consortium of 30 institutes in 12 countries on 3 continents. Preflight tests for sample selection, results from ground-based simulation experiments, and the space experiments themselves are presented and include a complete overview of the scientific processes required for this space experiment and postflight analysis. The presented BIOMEX concept could be scaled up to future exposure experiments on the Moon and will serve as a pretest in low Earth orbit.
Publication type:
Journal article
Document status:
Open access
de Vera, J., Alawi, M., Backhaus, T., Baqué, M., Billi, D., Böttger, U., et al. (2019). Limits of Life and the Habitability of Mars: The ESA Space Experiment BIOMEX on the ISS Astrobiology. 19 (2), 145-157.
    author           = {de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul and Alawi, Mashal and Backhaus, Theresa and Baqué, Mickael  and Billi, Daniela  and Böttger, Ute and Berger, Thomas and Bohmeier, Maria  and Cockell, Charles and Demets, René  and de la Torre Noetzel, Rosa  and Edwards, Howell and Elsaesser, Andreas and Fagliarone, Claudia and Fiedler, Annelie and Foing, Bernard  and Foucher, Frédéric and Fritz, Jörg and Hanke, Franziska and Herzog, Thomas H. and Horneck, Gerda  and Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm  and Huwe, Björn and Joshi, Jasmin and Kozyrovska, Natalia  and Kruchten, Martha and Lasch, Peter and Lee, Natuschka and Leuko, Stefan and Leya, Thomas  and Lorek, Andreas and Martínez-Frías, Jesús and Meessen, Joachim and Moritz, Sophie and Moeller, Ralf and Olsson-Francis, Karen and Onofri, Silvano  and Ott, Sieglinde and Pacelli, Claudia and Podolich, Olga and Rabbow, Elke  and Reitz, Günther  and Rettberg, Petra  and Reva, Oleg and Rothschild, Lynn and Sancho, Leo Garcia and Schulze-Makuch, Dirk and Selbmann, Laura  and Serrano, Paloma and Szewzyk, Ulrich and Verseux, Cyprien and Wadsworth, Jennifer and Wagner, Dirk and Westall, Frances  and Wolter, David and Zucconi, Laura },
    title            = {Limits of Life and the Habitability of Mars: The ESA Space Experiment BIOMEX on the ISS},
    journal          = {Astrobiology},
    year             = {2019},
    volume           = {19},
    number           = {2},
    pages            = {145-157},
    publisher        = {Mary Ann Liebert},
    doi              = {10.1089/ast.2018.1897},

Search this title in Google Scholar